Hangaram Design Art Museum will display works of a British archigram displays the entire process of design including mass media, the source of Archigram's imagination, sketches, drawings, solid models, and the final works. And the final works include some brilliant pieces such as capsule houses and moving structures. Moreover, four architects who had worked as the members of Archigram will visit to give a special lecture at Saturday Culture Room on Aug.2(Sat.) 1:00pm - 4:00pm.

Go to : Hangaram Design Art Museum¡¸ARCHIGRAM : Experimental Architecture 1961-1974¡¹English Homepage

¢Â Open Hours
    11:20-20:00(Admission Ticket sold until 19:00)
    (* No Exhibition on July 30th and August 4th)

¢Â Admission Fee
    Adult 2,000Won | Student 1,000Won | 20 or more 50% discount
    50% discount for group more than 20

¢Â Lecture
    August 2, 2003. 1:00-4:00 pm Seoul Arts Center Munhwa Sarang Bang

¢Â Opening Ceremony
    August 1, 2003. 6:30 pm Hangaram Design Art Museum

The Exhibition focuses on the innovative concepts and visionary projects of the English architectural group ARCHIGRAM -- Warren Chalk (b. 1927, d. 1987), Peter Cook (b. 1936), Dennis Crompton (b. 1935), David Greene (b. 1937), Ron Herron (b. 1930, d. 1994), and Michael Webb (b. 1937). The collective was especially active between 1961 and 1974. The London-based group anticipated the global inter-relatedness of culture and technology and thus had an immediate influence on architectural discussions worldwide. The significance of their work for the international community of architects has long been recognised and continues to be felt today. Their radical re-definitions of domestic architecture and urban planning, as well as an aesthetic that transcends practical function had wide-felt repercussions on contemporary British art of the 1960s and the subsequent avant-garde in architecture at that time in Europe, Japan, and America. Their work inspired two like-minded Italian collectives, "Archizoom" and "Superstudio" and Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers' Centre Pompidou (1972-76) in Paris, as well as buildings by Japanese "metabolist" architects such as Kenzo Tange's Shizuoka Press and Broadcasting Center (1965-70) in Tokyo. Archigram responded to comic books and the Beatles, space travel and moon landing, science fiction and the exciting new technologies of the sixties and seventies. Their inspirations came from architects and artists such as Buckminster Fuller, Bruno Taut, and Friedrich Kiesler. As a result, they created radical alternatives to cities, houses and other architectural archetypes. The group communicated their ideas through Archigram magazine as well as though traditional architectural renderings, gallery exhibitions, multi-media installations, and collage. Their unique style of rendering often emphasized concepts over architectural forms, and had an enormous influence on modern architectural drawing techniques as well as the conceptualization of architectural ideas.

The presentation of "Archigram: Experimental Architecture 1961-1974" was organised by the Archigram Archives, London and was designed for the SAC by Dennis Crompton. Beginning in this section with work that shows the origins of the group, the exhibition is arranged counter-clockwise to reveal the evolution of key ideas that the group advanced in their fourteen years together.


................................................................................................................................................................................................................

[Progects Introduction]


THE ARCHIGRAM OPERA

This sixties-spirited multimedia arena introduces the Archigram group and its historical milieu, offering documentary video footage, interviews, music, a slide show of Archigram projects, and more.
The centre piece of the presentation is the four-screen Archigram Opera. By 1972, when this opera was made, the magazine "Archigram" had produced all of its nine issues and the Archigram Group: Warren Chalk, Peter Cook, Dennis Crompton, David Greene, Ron Herron and Mike Webb, had been published throughout the world, followed by two dozen groups of one kind or another (particularly in Italy and Austria) and imitated, misinterpreted or reviled by all sorts of young architects. Members of the group would go round schools and architects' societies clutching a box of slides.
The need to distil, summarise and (quite frankly) package a series of statements and a series of preoccupations led to a long discussion of the "roadshow". The key figure of Dennis Crompton now emerges: almost every production of the group: competition, mock-up, presentation, model, machine, robot was the product of Dennis' extraordinary boffin-like ability with micro-switches, dark room apparatus, layers of acetate, rubber grommets. He was the key to this forty-five minute show that identifies, MOBILITY, ROBOTS, DREAMS COME TRUE.
All the sound track and the slides used for the projection are copied direcrly from the originals used by the group thirty years ago - which explains the relatively poor quality of some of the images compared with what would be now possible with digital imaging.
Three films made at the time are shown on the video monitors. The film about Archigram was made in 1966 by Denis Postle for an English television arts programme. "I Remember Architecture" was put together by David Greene and Mike Mires from a selection of material made during the early seventies. The untitled film featuring the Popular Pak with street sceens and robots was made by the group and shown in their section of the Milan Triennale in 1967.


POST-ARCHIGRAM, 1975 - 2003

This section includes a selection of individual projects conceived by Archigram members after the group had dispersed in 1974. In fourteen years of collective endeavor, Archigram established an entirely new way of thinking about how we might determine our future environments (personal and social) through limitless choice satisfying individual needs and desires. In Archigram's world, the tyranny of traditional architecture - cold, permanent, unresponsive - is replaced by architecture whose "principal conditioner" is humankind. Key principles - mobility, expendability, adaptability - emphasize the preeminence of the individual and individual choice in the conceptual framework of Archigram's visionary projects. These concerns were still addressed in Post-Archigram work as each member in his individual practice continued to explore avenues of interest in the spirit of Archigram: Warren Chalk continued writing and teaching in the United States and England. He died in 1987. Peter Cook formed a professional partnership and has built a number of residences in Germany and Japan. He is currently Bartlett Professor at University College in London. Dennis Crompton maintains the Archigram Archives and continues his involvement with teaching now at the Bartlett School of Architecture and designs exhibitions and publications. David Greene continued writing and formed a collaboration with Casa Verde. He is Professor of Architecture at the University of Westminster. Ron Herron taught and later formed a partnership with his sons in 1981. In 1993, he became Head of the School of Architecture, University of East London. He died in 1994. Mike Webb moved to New York City where he currently teaches at Columbia University, Cooper Union and elsewhere. He continues to exhibit work in the United States and Europe.


LOGPLUG
David Greene, 1969


Logplug was conceived along with its counterpart Rokplug just before Archigram designed Features Monte Carlo, a project for an architectural competition sponsored by the government of Monte Carlo. For Features, Archigram accentuated the natural beauty of the site by concealing all architectural elements beneath ground. Logplug is one of the origins of this concept, whereby the beauty and serenity of nature may be left undisturbed all the while providing utility and technology outlets, such as essential electrical plugs, hidden in logs to service semi-autonomous or non-autonomous mobile dwellings. This full-scale representation of Logplug reveals the earnest yet also whimsical quality of the proposal, a characteristic duality in Archigram's body of work: an enlarged diagram of Logplug very soberly illustrates its viable inner workings. This forms a backdrop for the installation that describes (with tongue-in-cheek) a natural setting mediated by technology. Equipped with homing devices, Logplugs are located in the wild with the help of dashboard monitors. Once the traveler has plugged into the log and has selected specific services, these are paid for with a credit card mechanism attached to the unit. While Logplug provided a step toward Archigram's later projects, it embodied the plug-in frame of mind of Archigram's Plug-In City and the notion of automatic environments of Instant City and Auto Environment. It also advances the idea of mobile dwellings explored in such projects as Cushicle and Suitaloon.


SPRAY PLASTIC HOUSE
David Greene, 1961


Why don't rabbits burrow rectangular burrows? Why didn't early man make rectangular caves?
Supposition: Architect¡¦Client wanting single-storey house in the landscape.
Phase 1, Burrows¡¦
Purchase foamed polystyrene block 40ft. by 40ft. by 15ft. and suitable burrowing tools, e.g. electric hedge-cutter, blow lamp. Block placed on site, burrowing commences, kids carving out playroom, etc., parents carving rest. Architects advising.
Phase 2, Dissolve¡¦
House burrow completed. Enter burrow with plastic and fibreglass spray machinery, (with client) spray burrow under supervision of plastics engineer. Client chooses regions of surfaces to be transparent or translucent, the spray mixture alters accordingly.
Phase 3, Completion¡¦
Shell entered by architect and service consultants and client. Client decides upon regions of lighting, wall, floor, heating, sinks, power points.


SUITALOON
Mike Webb, 1967


"Clothing for living in-or if it wasn't for my Suitaloon I would have to buy a house."
Suitaloon is an inflatable, nomadic house conceived to be worn as a suit providing a living envelope whenever and wherever desired. It extends Archigram's interest in mobile architecture, expressed in earlier projects such as Walking City. Fitting the body like clothes, the Suitaloon is a reductive dwelling that reduces the components and support systems needed to sustain an entire community down to the necessities for supporting a single individual. The Suitaloon was designed to be a complementary component of the Cushicle:
"The space suit could be identified as a minimal house. In the previous Cushicle, the environment for the rider was provided by the Cushicle-a mechanism like car. In this project the suit itself provides all the necessary services, the [optional] Cushicle being the source of (a) movement, (b) a larger envelope than the suit can provide, (c) power. Each suit has a plug serving a similar function to the key to your front door. You can plug into your friend and you will both be in one envelope, or you can plug into any envelope, stepping out of your suit which is left clipped on to the outside ready to step into when you leave. The plug also serves as a means of connecting envelopes together to form larger spaces. Various models of Cushicle envelope and suit would of course be available ranging from super sports to family models." - Mike Webb


ARCHIGRAM MAGAZINE, 1961 -1970

Archigram was initially the title of a broadside published in 1961 by recent architecture graduates Peter Cook, David Greene, and Mike (Spider) Webb. Ultimately this group expanded to include Warren Chalk, Dennis Crompton, and Ron Herron as well, and the name was chosen to designate their collective. The name Archigram is a combination of "architecture" and "telegram," and was intended to convey a sense of urgency upon receipt of the magazine, as if it were a telegram. The publication initially served as a platform for publishing student work and for perpetuating critical discourse fostered by student life. It was distributed by members of Archigram, often by hand, to interested members of the architectural community. Eventually, it became an outlet for disseminating Archigram's radical and highly unorthodox architectural ideas and principles. Often including pictures clipped from magazines or comic books, the magazine Archigram brought what was usually a highly specialized discourse on architectural theory into a broader, more popular arena. A total of nine issues of Archigram were published.


CITY INTERCHANGE
Warren Chalk + Ron Herron 1963


Like a vast hub, City Interchange is a plan for a megastructure consisting of a central node with transportation conduits that radiate out in every direction, above and below ground. The interchange provides access to rapid transportation and communication to remote population centers. Long distance and inter-regional rapid transit using "linear induction motor propelled" trains connect outlying regions. City Interchange would contain facilities for aircraft and hovercraft while slower methods of transportation such as subways, busses, cars, and pedestrian conduits operate on lower levels. The structure itself serves as a mega-transmitter of information: its towers are communication and broadcasting beacons as well as facilities for transport control. Resembling a vital organ with its networks of arteries, City Interchange anticipates Archigram's "belief in the city as a unique organism," expressed by the later project Living City.


CAPSULE HOMES
Warren Chalk 1964


Capsule Homes was inspired by the latest form of living container at that time - the space capsule. The Capsule Home is essentially a space capsule modified to become a portable, expendable home. This project is significant in the advancement of some of Archigram's key principles - mobility, adaptability, and expendability. Each unit is designed efficiently with fold-away parts, such as a fold-out screen and a clip-on appliance wall to create additional space . Component parts of different models are interchangeable and may be replaced when outdated or when needs arise. The units may be organized in a cluster, plugging into one another to create a larger structure that may be arranged horizontally or vertically as in Capsule Homes Tower.


PLUG-IN CITY
Warren Chalk + Peter Cook + Dennis Crompton 1964


Plug-In City is one of the first megastructures conceived by Archigram. The project incorporates notions first developed in City Interchange about channeling traffic, information, and support systems, but within an urban setting where people live and work. Plug-In City consists of a network of access ways to transportation and essential services, such as electricity, plumbing, and heating, upon which housing and commercial modules are attached via a system of service cranes. The structure is tubular and multi-layered, based on the archetypal medieval city wall. The tubular wall structure serves as a viaduct for the channeling of services and communication networks to live/work modules attached to the framework. The modules are designed for obsolescence to be replaced by newer more efficient models, resulting in a cityscape that is in a perpetual state of metamorphosis.


WALKING CITY
Ron Herron 1964


Walking City imagines a future in which borders and boundaries are abandoned in favor of a nomadic lifestyle among groups of people worldwide. Inspired by NASA's towering, mobile launch pads, hovercraft, and science fiction comics, Archigram envisioned parties of itinerant buildings that travel on land and sea. Like so many of Archigram's projects, Walking City anticipated the fast-paced urban lifestyle of a technologically advanced society in which one need not be tied down to a permanent location. The structures are conceived to plug into utilities and information networks at different locations to support the needs and desires of people who work and play, travel and stay put, simultaneously. By means of this nomadic existence, different cultures and information is shared, creating a global information market that anticipates later Archigram projects, such as Instant City and Ideas Circus.


IDEAS CIRCUS
Peter Cook 1967


Ideas Circus is directly related to the Instant City project. Like Instant City, the project is conceived as an itinerant urban environment, transported by airships to a limitless number of locations. The principal function of the Ideas Circus is education. Its conventional equivalent is the university campus. Conjecturing that future schooling systems would be dependent upon access to technology and interconnectivity between educational resources, Archigram conceived Ideas Circus as a broad exchange of information among distant groups of people. Previously explored in projects such as Walking City, Archigram imagined a vast information network resulting from Ideas Circus that anticipated the scope and capability of the Internet: every location visited by the "circus" plugs into a technology network (hardware) left behind once the circus has moved on. With each new host/member, the communication network grows exponentially in an organic fashion.


INSTANT CITY
Peter Cook + Dennis Crompton + Ron Herron 1968


Instant City travels from town to town like a circus. It is transported from location to location via trucks and airships. It is erected and unfolded in a short period of time into a sprawling entertainment complex that offers the virtual experience of urban life, bringing news, events and the flavor of city living to remote areas. Instant City was the result of a grant awarded to Archigram by Chicago's Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Arts in 1968. The project sought to reconcile conflicting human natures - to travel and to stay put; to visit the city but reside in the suburbs; to experience change and yet preserve tradition. It also incorporates Archigram's ongoing interest in the dynamic potential of an itinerant, impermanent metropolis as in Walking City.


CUSHICLE
Mike Webb 1966


Reducing to an extreme the notion of mobile architecture explored earlier by Ron Herron on the grand scale of Walking City, Michael Webb designed Cushicle as a mobile housing unit for an individual. Consisting of an inflatable skin attached to a rigid spine, the unit provides all the comforts of a dwelling including radio and television, and satisfies fundamental sustenance needs with ports for access to water, heat, and food. Cushicle precedes the more streamlined Suitaloon (essentially an ambulatory version of Cushicle) and demonstrates the refinement of Archigram's vision of the portable environment - one that responds more and more directly to individual human needs and desires.


FEATURES MONTE CARLO

Peter Cook + Dennis Crompton + Ron Herron 1969-1974


Features Monte Carlo was awarded 1st Prize in a competition sponsored by the Ministre d'Etat of Monaco. The competition sought proposals for an entertainment building that was to be built on a reclaimed part of Monte Carlo's shoreline, thus Features Monte Carlo was to be the first project ever realized by Archigram. While other competitors offered projects above ground, Archigram presented a plan for a large complex that was below ground, beneath a wide, shallow dome. Ironically, designs submitted by the other competitors were largely inspired by Archigram's earlier projects. Archigram's winning design emphasized the natural beauty of the coastline by burying the architecture - the other proposals ruptured the serenity of the horizon with their proposed structures.
Features was designed to accommodate any and all types of entertainments from sporting events to art exhibitions on a circular floorplan adaptable to any situation with state-of-the art multi-media technology, modular furniture, mobile facilities, plug-in accessories, and robotic servicing systems. A short time later, a government turnover in Monte Carlo resulted in the termination of the project.


SUPERHOUSTON
Peter Cook 2000


The SuperHouston project was inspired by a series of Seminars given at Rice University in the fall of 1998 based upon the progression of a series of models:-
1. The Italian hill town,
2. London,
3. Los Angeles,
4. Houston,
5. Super-Houston.

If Houston as we know it is art the point of blandness and featurelessness and even- spread at the far end of the progression, in the near future we could create an even- more-even spread, especially if we start to computer-regulate vehicle traffic.
SuperHouston has a grid of 'bugged' streets with an induction track in the street that is electronically linked to the steering system of cars and trucks via a small clip-on attachment. You dial into your destination and relax¡¦. read the paper, play cards, take a nap¡¦. Or even take a real look at your surroundings until you near your destination, at which time a buzzer will alert you.
The characteristic of much of today's Houston is of a two-story city nesting under the spread of the trees. This will be extended and a whole series of environmentally friendly houses devised to add to existing Houston 'types'. These new houses exploit the potential of cross-ventilation, water cooling and the involvement of vegetation as a filter and a gentle screening of built form.
Small-scale institutions and enterprises are to be found amongst this 'even' spread of building. It rolls on-and-on for 16km, each way - only occasionally riddled by some parks and streams.
Along one edge of the 16km, spread lies a long strip. This is called 'the Liner' and it contains everything else: shopping, schools, warehouses, entertainments, manufacturing, parking and grouped activities. Every kilometre or so the Liner is 'scratched' or interfered-with by frantic collection of dart-shaped structures that attract the more 'heroic' internal structures around them. These are the equivalent of 'villages' in London and the darts shoot out across the street and into the general spread of SuperHouston. The village-marks give a momentary focus to the scene outside for each group is different. The darts are filled with office suites and studios, their faces are hypersurfaced in bright colours or advertising.
On the far side of the Liner is parkland that contains woods, sports areas and a small river, from time to time it interweaves with the Liner itself.


LIVING CITY EXHIBITION (1963)
¡¦our belief in the city as a unique organism underlies the whole project¡¦


In the Living City man is the ultimate subject and principal conditioner. The theme is interpreted by presenting evocations, accentuations and simulations of city life, not a display of suggested forms. The image is a total image of it all like a film.
The present exhibition cannot be said to be a review, for its program is evolutionary and it can only be definitive in relation to the actual experience within the exhibition itself. Can we predict the balance of evocations of the 'city' until we see them for the first time? Whether the present exhibition is a valuable gesture depends upon whether one demands a single line of argument, whether one states that black is black and white is white, and moreover, that they are diametrically opposite. There are several lines of argument implicit in our collection of exhibits, but like a jigsaw, the picture is amassed from the whole, and it is a coloured jigsaw with many shades of grey, also.
Certainly, Living City has come about as the reply to the situation as it appears to us, who are involved in the creation and evaluation of environment. We are in a European city, of long-established precedents, but with no clear way ahead for us to build upon them. The re-creation of environment is too often a jaded process, having to do only with densities, allocations of space, fulfillment of regulations: the spirit of cities is lost in the process. It is from America that the real warning has come. William H. Whyte in the Exploding Metropolis and more recently Jane Jacobs in Death and Life of Great American Cities treat the threat of the denouement of city centres with a concern that is at the same time intelligent and frightening. They search hard for any signs of reversal of the general trend, or a way out, or some path back to the situation when 'city' meant something vibrating with life. The Atlantic time-lag is about to catch up with us. The problem facing our cities is not just that of their regeneration, but of their right to an existence. The real terror for us is that the cities we have will be sacrificed for an overall conformity covering the whole of this piece of Europe, for endless suburban communities, providing, it is admitted, a high standard of material comfort, but devoid of the quality of the city, because in the process this will have died.
In this exhibition above everything else we are being positive. The enemy is the negation of something of unique value. We are defending, moreover, a quality which is almost undefinable. The life-blood of cities runs through all that goes on in them. Some of these things are in themselves gad-vice, corruption of the young, overcrowding, exposure to risk; some are tedious, timewasting, or just banal; but overriding all these are the positives. So far in our creation of a way of life we have enriched experience by rule-of-thumb where environment is concerned. The living city is a unique experience, but the experience is not complete without the dark greys as well as the light.
The total impression of a collection of phenomena of city life will vary between spectators. It is, however, the privilege of the exhibitor to load the emphasis and guide their conclusions.
In the living city all are important: the triviality of lighting a cigarette, or the hard fact of moving two million commuters a day. In fact they are equal--as facets of the shared experience of the city. So far, no other form of environment has been devised that produces the same quality of experience shared by so many minds and interests. When it is raining in Oxford Street the architecture is no more important than the rain; in fact the weather has probably more to do with pulsation of the living city at the given moment. Similarly all moments of time are equally valid in the shared experience. The city lives equally in its past and its future, and in the present where we are.
Most of the pieces of the exhibition are of today, but there must be phenomena of the past and predictable items, which in this context must not be taken as architectural statements so much as the continuance of the spirit of the city in its physical image. Perhaps the key to the evasiveness of city spirit is the spirit of people themselves. In the first place they came together, for one reason or another, to make cities. They continue to interact upon each other in the shared experience. The image of the city may well be the image of people themselves, and we have devoted much of the exhibition to the life-cycle and survival kit of people within cities. Man is the ultimate subject around which we are exhibiting, and he conditions any space into which he comes. The Living City exhibition is a series of small spaces, and they alone will be fantastically affected by the number of people walking around them. The items used to show all this will vary from trivia to valued drawings, and monster versions to miniscule versions of everyday things. This again is a reflection of how the city is seen by different people in different moods. And again they are all equally valid. Typography, sound, colour, feelies, they are all in a way facets of experience in themselves. Disparate as the total effect may well be, as is the intention, we have used two devices, and only two, which act as a control to the form of the exhibition. The first is the decision to use a system of triangles as the structural and formal basis. This has come about through the ability of this figure to twist itself around spaces, a freedom very necessary in our presentation. The triangles are nevertheless a structurally sensible unit that can be prefabricated. Nothing more should be read into the fact that we have used triangles, nothing more was intended. The other device has been the division of the major spaces or 'alcoves' (we have called them 'gloops', amongst ourselves; a word probably coined out of loop, or encompassment of a tight space); each gloop has a division of subject-matter and in a way represents the intensity of these subjects in certain parts of the city and certain corners of our mind. They are as follows: Man, Survival, Community. Communications, Movements, Place and Situation. They are, however, not tight, and they overlap, just as they do in reality. It will be asked: 'Why have you not stated an answer to the problem, why have you not an image of the city of the future?' We feel that it has been primarily necessary to define the problem. We have set the scene. We have attempted to capture that indefinable something: the Living City.

We shall not hesitate to postulate concrete ideas--but that is for another exhibition. Let this be said, if nothing else, that our belief in the city as a unique organism underlies the whole project.

Quoted from the Exhibition catalogue in Living Arts magazine 1963.


CONTROL AND CHOICE (1967)

The determination of your environment need no longer be left in the hands of the designer of the building: it can be turned over to you yourself. You turn the switches and choose the conditions to sustain you at that point in time. The 'building' is reduced to the role of carcass--or less. When Archigram was asked to send an exhibit to the 1967 Paris Biennale des Jeunesses the 'Control or Choice' conversation was extended very naturally into a project which was given the same name. [T]he word 'metamorphosis' is a summary of the whole discussion and the new set of parts that might make the project physically possible.
There is a natural fear in most of us that suspects the power of the machine and its takeover of human responsibility. This familiar bogey of the first machine age becomes even more terrifying with the dependence upon the unseen potential of electronic systems (they have even greater power control than the obvious, symbolic and almost humanoid presence of a machine).
The dependence upon such things for an emancipatory life is one of our paradoxes. The problem of exploitation of systems and machines and the continued recognition of 'friendly' and even 'passive' objects at the same time naturally leads to a hybrid assembly of parts.
Much of the project is still concerned with structure, mechanics and is of a defined mathematical order. It is necessary to postulate a system that can integrate with existing cities or imperfect sub-countryside.
The network proposed for accommodating dwellings, entertainment facilities, industry or practically any other urban infill is here based on a 1 metre square grid. This interacts where necessary with a system of 1 metre (equilateral) triangles. Most parts of the system that are structural, or have to be manufactured in quantity, refer to this grid. The largest scale of organization uses multiples of the 1 metre. There are optimum positions for horizontal and vertical structure; but these can be 'tuned' by greater or lesser infilling of pieces-or left out altogether. Naturally, there are likely optima for the location of many things that we might find in a dwelling: the need for several persons to congregate in one kind of place, the need for utmost privacy in another kind of place are obvious but need not lead to a complete and fixed hierarchy that is the result of most architectural discipline.
The hardware exists on a sliding scale that contains a parallel between size, permanence and rigidity of position. Starting at the largest, most permanent, most definitive, it runs as follows:
1. Structure/organization path with 'pylons'. The electric vehicle routes and the definition of one family's reserve as against another's tend to shadow this as well.
2. Typical floor/wall/truss/substructure kit (of 1 metre units). The intermixing of triangular and square elements is able to take up most locations. The pyramidal frame usually has a service outlet at its centre, so that any run of floor can be assumed to provide a facility for electricity, pressurized air, water, electronic circuitry, piped sound, information, and so on, at 1 metre centres.
3. 'Robotized' elements. These are a development from the 1990 House robots. Now they are less humanoid, less a complete servant object, more a notion about facility that crystallizes around an armature. They can be thought of as analogous to a hi-fi unit, with more or less attachments added to provide better facilities. A small-scale plug-in system in each. These robotized elements include screens that carry the ephemeral end of the environment: screened happenings, television, colour, light. Food and drink trolleys are also robotized.
4. 'Satellites'. There is really no dividing line between the 'hard' elements that stay in the same place most of the time and the 'soft' which are hardly there at all: for instance, the traveling units such as the electric cars which can become a 'room' in their own right. The most elaborate vehicle, with cooking and lavatory facilities, has an inflatable holiday house that grows out of it. As shown, it sits in the lowest level of the dwelling when at home.


MANZAK/ELECTRONIC TOMATO (1969)

Tired of supermarket shopping? Is it becoming a nightmare--up and down narrow aisles between high walls of brand name uniformity, with the lights glaring down and canned music boring in, as you search desperately for one can of Cream of Mushroom, where every label reads Tomato?
Then you haven't heard of MANZAK or the ELECTRONIC TOMATO.
MANZAK is our latest idea for a radio-controlled, battery-powered electric automaton. It has on-board logic, optical range-finder, TV camera, and magic eye bump detectors. All the sensory equipment you need for environmental information retrieval, and for performing tasks.
Optional extras include response equipment for specific applications and subtasks to your own specification.
Direct your business operations, do the shopping, hunt or fish, or just enjoy electronic instamatic voyeurism, from the comfort of your own home.
For the great outdoors, get instant vegetable therapy from the new ELECTRONIC TOMATO - a groove gizmo that connects to every nerve end to give you the wildest buzz.


L.A.W.U.N./MOWBOT/BOTTERY (1970)

Get LAWUN [Locally Available World Unseen Networks] onto your lawn -
Could the whole world be an all-green-grass-sphere?
If you had a quiet chuckle over Electronic Tomato or Manzak then take a fast look under your bed or your better-than-real-leather Naugahyde chair and check that MOWBOT isn't sleeping there, purring like some overloved kitten waiting to chew up your carpet when you go out the door. This is the mower that sleeps in the shed. You groove away in the rose-bed while the lawn-mower-with-the-brain makes out in the grass of your own back door great yonder.
Mowbot has no appetite for flowers, plants, shrubs, etc.; while it completes its grass-cutting chores you may now potter in the garden with no concern for the safety of your flower beds--any time of the day or night. The real point is it's available, it's on the market; mow now pay later.
Nowhere is safe from unseen signals and like all your enemies it is far better to embrace them as your friend and learn to live rather than cry morality or history. Get your local authority to electrify their park and give the gardeners time to tend the blossoms and cover the cities with geraniums. Take a look at mowbot, is it a freak?...another natty gadget? Can you be sure a Fridgebot won't be marketed tomorrow or a bed-bot, housebot, all ready and responsive to Lawun, and everyone knowing about Lawun and it being all over and calling up your bots from some kind of a scene in the forest glades and setting up your village without moving. Don't move, it'll come to you.
DEFINITION: A Bottery is a fully serviced natural landscape.
This project is about calling it all up wherever you are (Environmental anarchy). A bottery is a robot-serviced landscape. This project is about the setting up of an experimental bottery used solely by pedestrians for the purposes of (a) studying the nature and operation of the bot-man relationship (b) the development of reliable and efficient bot systems.
For hardware lovers: a selection of available electric aids to natural growth to help the gardener in the world park. Also a diagram of a cross section of a skinbot. The basic bot consists of a primary frame, a power module and an exchange unit. On to this are clipped combinations of modules for various performance requirements. Compatibility is assured by the exchange unit which rejects any mismatched modules.
Skinbot delivers 18 cu. Metres of air-conditioned deformable space, enclosed by a Sunfilta gossamer membrane that can glow at night by voice command and whose opacity is infinitely variable to choice. Combot brings to your side out of the bluebells a way into your own secret mind, or selects out of the world's transmitted invisible pictures and sounds your own pattern of information and shows it on your shirt or on a screen. This is a brief community of people gathered together in the world park. They have called up their bots. The gathering is only related to time. Tomorrow, in half an hour, next week, it will all have changed, there'll be nothing remaining to indicate that it was there. The natural scene will remain unchanged. This small instant village will only exist in the memories of the people that were there and in the information memory of the robot. An invisible village. An architecture existing only in time.