Reading Face with Physiognomy

In the physiognomy, we call what intend to predict the human character and destiny with its face a countenance or looks. In meeting someone firstly, we would say about his first looks. It shows that the physiognomy has been influenced to us Koreans.
Originally the physiology was developed in China. According to the ancient report, its origin traces back to the Zhou Dynasty. But there had not been a systematic development in the physiology before two important books came out; one is Dalma-Sangbup written by Dalma, the Great Monk from India and the other is Maui-Sangbub of the priest Maui of the Song Dynasty.
It is assumed that Chinese physiognomy was transmitted to Korean Peninsular by people who had studied in China in the Three Kingdoms Ages. The physiognomy was advanced throughout Koryo and Chosun Dynasty, and especially that in Buddhism was its main current. The famous physiognomists in Koryo were Doseon, Hyejing and Muhak. They all were monks.
In Chosun Dynasty, the famous scholars such as So Kyoung-duk, Lee Yul-gok as well as buddhist monks had deep knowledge of phrenology.
Especially, the phrenology was also an important point in treating the patients even in medical science book [Dong eu bo gam]of HEO JUN.
The phrenology is an astrology that judges a person focusing not only on the shape of one's face but also on the hand, foot, and the entire body. But the face is the most important thing.
Physiognomy - 12 Physiognomy - Ī
The fundamental method of judging one's face is on the basis of "Yin-Yang O- Heng", which means the cosmic dual forces and the five primary substance.
According to this, phrenology of one's face is divided into various features like "symmetry-oriented, Samjung-oriented, Kung-oriented, five sense-oriented, O-Heng -oriented, etc." The map of face according to Kung-oriented method, for example, is as follows. Parent-Kung has the opposite place between man and woman, left for man and right for woman.

Since the phrenology of China took the examples from the Chinese, it is different from that of Korea. For instance, Korean phrenology focuses on chin while Chinese on forehead. And that's the same in eyes, nose, ear and mouth.
The human figures in the paintings have the face of noble or dignity.
The noble face has a long and a little bright face.
The forehead is broad. Chin and the place between two eyebrows are thick.
The dignified face is the face of military men with Majesty look. He has brilliant eyes, up-ended eyebrows, and strong-looking nose and ears.
Measuring face with a ruler is one of the characteristics in Korean phrenology.
There is an episode about Han Myung Whae, a famous statesman under King Sejo, who was judged by taking measure of his face. So we can guess the phrenological method of that kind settled down before Chosun Dynasty.
Although phrenology came from China, Koreans have developed in their own way.
But today, a lot of Korean people don't like their natural faces. They want to make changes to their faces by the surgical operation. Especially, western-styled face is thought of as the standard of beauty.
Therefore traditional phrenological interpretation has had no place to stand, instead, more people would rely on medical development for becoming more western.

Physiognomy - Classification of face shape
Physiognomy - 12 5

Faces' changes as expression method